Special Education Reform?

I remember 20 plus years ago when I was getting my graduate degree in Special Education and a buddy of mine getting his degree in elementary education told me that his father, a school principal, said that I probably shouldn’t waste my time getting a masters in Special Education. He said that Special Education would be eventually fading out of public education. I was almost done with my masters at this point so I figured I would have to take my chances with it, besides what other choice did I have anyways at that point?

I got a Special Education job and taught for about 10 year. There were a lot of ups and downs over those 10 years, and eventually I decided that I wanted a change so I got certified and switched over to high school history. At this point in my career I remembered what my friend had said a decade ago and wondered if I was ahead of the curve on schools no longer needing special education teachers, even though it was 10 years later. I wondered if my job was now safe in my new-found home in the history department.

Well, I loved teaching history, but life has its own funny ways that aren’t aligned to us and what we want, so after a decade of teaching history I personally got a first class education on budget cuts and my job was eliminated. Thankfully, I landed on my feet back in Special Education, believe it or not.

It had been more than two decades since my old graduate school buddy told me that the need for special education teachers was disappearing. During the previous two decades my friend had gone from graduate school to elementary school teacher to assistant principal to principal, just like his father had done. I had gone from graduate school to special education teacher to history teacher to back to special education teacher, like nobody else that I know had done. And believe it or not there was still a bunch of special education jobs available when I landed there for a second time. As a matter of fact, there was actually plenty of jobs there because there is a shortage of special education teachers in 49 out of our 50 states. Imagine that… Two decades after I was told that Special Education was going away, and I find that they still can’t seem to get enough special education teachers.

Fast-forward a few more years to today and there is a new and interesting twist affecting Special Education called full inclusion. Now inclusion isn’t a new thing to our schools. As a matter of fact inclusion has a long interesting history in our schools.

Six decades ago there was the Supreme Court Case of Brown v. Board of Education. In 1954 the new law of the land became integrated schools for all races. Four decades ago the ground-breaking law of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) began to take effect and help ensure that more than six million students with disabilities have the right to a free and appropriate education, which means they too get to be included in with the general education population.

To help this happen schools create a Planning and Placement Team (PPT) that meet and discuss a student’s Individual Education Program (IEP) and then place the student in the appropriate educational setting based on the student’s needs and the law. The placement also needs to be the least restrictive environment (LRE). I can still remember my college professor describing the least restrictive environment in a short story that one would not bring a machine gun to take care of a fly. Rather, one would just bring a fly-swatter to take care of a fly. In other words, if a kid’s disability can be dealt with in the neighborhood school, then the kid doesn’t have to be sent across town or even to another town’s special school.

Today, many schools are trying to improve on this inclusion model and least restrictive environment by going from a partial to a full-inclusion model. Schools in the Los Angeles School District have moved a vast majority of their students out of their special education centers within the last three years and into neighborhood schools where they are fully integrated into elective classes like physical education, gardening and cooking. They are also integrated into regular main stream academic classes as well, but it’s usually not to the same degree as electives.

Michigan schools say that want to break down the walls between general education and Special Education creating a system in which students will get more help when they need it, and that support doesn’t need to be in a separate special education classroom.

Some school districts in Portland, Oregon are a little further along than the Los Angeles schools that are just bringing special education students back from special schools and Michigan schools that are just beginning to try full integration of its students and eliminating most of the special education classrooms.

Being a little further along in the process Portland makes an interesting case study. Many of the parents who initially supported the idea of integrating special education students into regular education classrooms in Portland are now worried about how the Portland Public School System is doing it. Portland is aiming for full-inclusion by the year 2020. However, some of the teachers in Portland are saying, “Obviously the special education students are going to fail and they are going to act out because we are not meeting their needs… If there’s not the right support there, that’s not acceptable, not only for the child, but for the general education teacher as well.”

A Portland parent said, “I would rather have my child feel successful than for them to be ‘college-ready’.” She further states, “I want my children to be good, well-rounded human beings that make the world a better place. I don’t think they necessarily need to go to college to do that. I think that children are individuals, and when we stop treating them as individuals, there’s a problem.” Sadly, many parents and teachers have left the Portland School District, and many more are fantasizing about it because they feel the full-inclusion model isn’t working there how they pictured it would.

How much should schools integrate the special education students is the burning question of the hour. In my personal experience some integration is not only possible, but it’s a must. With some support many of the special education students can be in the regular education classrooms.

A few years ago I even had a non-speaking paraplegic boy in a wheel chair who was on a breathing respirator sitting in my regular education social studies class. Every day his para professional and his nurse rolled him into and sat with him. He always smiled at the tales I told of Alexander the Great marching across 11,000 miles of territory and conquering much of the known world at that time. By the way, Alexander the Great also practiced his own model of inclusion by encouraging kindness to the conquered and encouraging his soldiers to marry the captured territory’s women in order to create a lasting peace.

Other important factors to consider in special education inclusion is the much needed socialization and the saving of money integration offers. Kids learn from other kids and money not spent on Special Education could be spent on general education, right? Hmm…

If you noticed, I said a little bit earlier that many special education students could be integrated, but I did not say all or even most should be integrated. There are just some students that are going to take away too much of the teacher’s time and attention from other students, such as, in the case of students with severe behavior problems. When we put severe behavior problems in regular education classes it’s just outright unfair to all of the other children in there. Similar cases could be made for other severe disabilities too that demand too much of the main stream teacher’s individual time and attention.

Hey, I’m not saying to never try out a kid with a severe disability in a general education setting. But what I am saying is that schools need to have a better system of monitoring these placements and be able to quickly remove students that aren’t working out, and are taking precious learning time away from other students. Furthermore, schools need to do this without shaming the teacher because the teacher complained that the student wasn’t a good fit and was disrupting the educational learning process of the other students. Leaving a kid in an inappropriate placement isn’t good for any of the parties involved. Period.

Over the last two decades I have worked with more special education students than I can remember as a special education teacher and a regular education teacher teaching inclusion classes. I have learned to become extremely flexible and patient and thus have had some of the toughest and most needy kids placed in my classes. I have worked miracles with these kids over the years and I know that I am not the only teacher out there doing this. There are many more out there just like me. But, what I worry about is that because teachers are so dedicated and pulling off daily miracles in the classroom, districts, community leaders, and politician may be pushing too hard for the full-inclusion model thinking that the teachers will just have to figure it out. Setting up teachers and students for failure is never a good idea.

Furthermore, I hope it’s just not the money that they are trying to save while pushing this full-inclusion model forward because what we should really be trying to save is our children. As Fredrick Douglas said, “It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men.” Regardless of how the financial educational pie is sliced, the bottom line is that the pie is just too small and our special education teachers and our special education students shouldn’t be made to pay for this.

In addition, I have been a teacher for too long to not be at least a little skeptical when I hear the bosses say that the reason they are pushing for the full-inclusion model is because socialization is so important. I know it’s important. But, I also know that too many people are hanging their hats on that socialization excuse rather than education our special needs students and providing them what they really need. I have seen special education students whose abilities only let them draw pictures sitting in honors classes. There is no real socialization taking place here. It just doesn’t make sense.

Well, finally coming full circle. It will be interesting to see where this full inclusion thing goes. The wise ones won’t let their special education teachers go, or get rid of their classrooms. And for the school districts that do, I imagine that it won’t take long before they realize the mistake they made and start hiring special education teachers back. To my friend and his now ex-principal father from all those years ago who thought special education was going away, well, we’re not there yet, and to tell you the truth, I don’t think we ever will be.

Technology in Education: Student Engagement Through iPods

I love talking with people of a certain age who have never taught in a classroom. The conversation generally starts with a line something like this: “You teach high school? I don’t know how you do it!” Once that fact has been established, my conversation mate generally meanders through all of the ills that have befallen our public schools in the past decade, me murmuring my own opinions about my profession from time to time (which are generally countered with a “Well, back in my day… ” dismissal). We come to an end of our chat with my new acquaintance sighing and then summing up the vast problems of adolescents today by saying something along the lines of “Kids just aren’t the same these days.”

While I smile politely through most of the conversation, secretly (or not so secretly) disagreeing with many statements, I do tend to agree with that final statement: kids just AREN’T the same these days. It is almost dizzying to think of how much our world has changed in just the past decade (use the size of a cell phone as a measuring stick if necessary). How could we expect our youths to stay the same? Theirs is a world of texting, tweeting, Googling, and Facebooking, and none of these things were common knowledge (much less common verbs!) when I was in high school, even though that was only a short ten years ago. Instead of bemoaning that the students of today aren’t responding to the standard method of delivering instruction, we should meet them on their own playing field, integrating technology into our everyday practice. With this thought in mind, I structured my classroom around the use of iPods, and I quickly learned that dedicated educators have the opportunity of harnessing so much educational potential through one tiny device.

I became the shepardess of thirty iPod Touches as a sort of fluke; I was a young English teacher, and my school district had just received a grant to place these devices in English, Math, and Science classes that were preparing for our state’s standardized tests. The cart resembled R2-D2 from Star Wars, and it had a slot for each numbered iPod that came complete with a cord that connected it to the cart itself; this allowed for mass charging and syncing of the iPods. Inside the cart, I found that I was also furnished with a Macbook, a digital presenter, and a wireless hotspot.

Instead of the excitement I’m sure I was meant to feel (oh the entitlement of being one of the first teachers in the district to be part of this new wave in education!), I was completely freaked out. Nothing in my limited teaching experience thus far, not to mention my education courses in college, had prepared me for managing or using iPods with my students. What in the heck was I supposed to do with these things? Weren’t they just for listening to music and playing the occasional game? What was I supposed to do if a student walked out with one? For that matter, what was stopping them from coming in after hours and wheeling out the entire cart? I was besieged by thoughts of mass educational failure, followed by the inevitable termination of my teaching position, and I counted myself as very unlucky indeed to be chosen for such an “honor.”

I eventually overcame my terror and created a system where each student was assigned an iPod by his or her seat in the classroom. Students and parents signed a waiver at the beginning of the school year that had them acknowledge that they would be responsible for half of the iPod’s cost if theirs was to go missing or become damaged beyond normal wear and tear. Each desk was furnished with an iPod “parking space,” which was simply a laminated piece of paper that had the outline of an iPod that included the iPod number assigned to that desk and the rules for using the iPods; when the iPods were not in use, students were to turn them face-down in their parking space. Students were to pick up their assigned iPods from the cart when first entering the classroom and return them during clean-up time, about three minutes prior to the bell ringing. Because I was teaching five separate sections of tenth and eleventh graders throughout the day, this system made management of the devices easy and also prevented students from simply playing with their iPods when instruction was occurring.

My first foray into using the iPods was very simplistic, but it eventually grew into an effective research project. By simply using the Safari application, I had students look up various facts about our next author and answer questions on a worksheet. This first project turned out to be a little too basic (and a little too much like looking up facts in a textbook), so we added another element to our next project. When we were beginning our unit on Zora Neale Hurston, I created a modified webquest by simply looking up informative websites and saving the links to my PortaPortal website. I then created a shortcut on the iPods to my PortaPortal site. Students were placed into groups and assigned the job of creating “Farcebook” profile pages that had to include posts, biographical information, and friends that would have been included if Zora Neale Hurston had had a social networking site like Facebook. Different variations of this project became a regular event in my classroom because my students felt like they weren’t doing “real research” because of the format of the final product, and they were much more amenable to finding the information using the iPods than they had been when doing a similar project using printed materials.

After that initial success, I began to investigate more specialized apps. I soon found that some simple (and free!) games from the App Store could be used as quick and efficient bell ringers (or warm-ups). Right before our standardized tests, my remediation students began using Miss Spell’s Class for the first five minutes of class every other day to review commonly misspelled words. Students would record their scores on index cards that I would collect for participation credit at the end of class. We would also often start class with Chicktionary, a game that requires letters to be rearranged to spell different words; I would ask students to write down one word from their game that they weren’t familiar with and then use their dictionary app to find the definition. Depending on the amount of time we had in class, I could extend this activity so that students had to use that word in a sentence or quiz a partner on the meaning of the word. We also made use of the Grammar Up app as a way of reviewing concepts prior to an assessment.

For my more advanced students, I started a class blog that allowed us to create “silent discussions” where students could use their iPods to respond to discussion questions. I would post a question on the site before class began, and students would respond in class by commenting on the post and then responding to posts from their classmates. I molded this activity in several different ways, including having students use certain sentence structures in their comments (i.e. you must use a compound sentence in your post) and also having them post their own questions for the class to “silently” discuss. This activity became a favorite of my students because it allowed the quiet students (who wouldn’t speak at all in regular discussions but often had wonderful ideas) to express themselves, and it was also fun to see just how long a class of twenty-five tenth graders could sit in a room together and be verbally silent while they were interacting with each other on their devices.

I also utilized the iPods as an easy way to differentiate instruction. My eleventh grade remediation class had students with who received special education assistance as well as students who were just shy of cutting it in the regular level course. Because of this wide array of ability levels, it was often difficult to deal with behavior management, as students would either be bored because instruction was too slow for them or begin acting out as a mask for not grasping the concepts as quickly as the others. By putting an audio copy of the books that we were reading in class on each iPod and creating reading guides that highlighted concepts that we had discussed as a class, students could work at their own pace while I circulated throughout the room and provided assistance to individuals. The reading guides eventually turned into an Easter egg hunt of sorts, with questions such as “After reading Chapter 2, look back at page 5 and copy the example of personification used there.”

In addition to the techniques I described in detail above, I implemented the iPods in a myriad other ways. Google Docs helped me to create simple multiple choice (and even short answer) assessments that could be completed on the iPods; these gave me an instant picture of how students were doing with concepts that we were discussing in class. iBooks’ PDF feature allowed me to upload copies of my PowerPoint presentations so students who were absent could come in and copy notes quickly. The pre-loaded camera app allowed my students to take pictures and videos of group projects. The QR Code reader allowed me to create scavenger hunts where students would scan the codes, be sent to sites or videos, and answer questions for a project. The best part was, I was only on the tip of the iceberg; I can’t even begin to imagine what these devices could do in other disciplines and grade levels.

Now, with all this said, I am not saying that the iPod Touch is the final word in student engagement; in fact, by the time that this article is read, this piece of technology may be completely outdated. iPads, Android devices, and other devices have just as much potential; I have just spoken from my work with the technology that was made available to me. The point that should be drawn from my experience is that as educators, we must also be innovators; we can’t stick to the same classroom strategies and expect that engagement will come naturally. The classroom must morph and change with the rest of the world.

If a reader is looking for a place to start with technology in the classroom, I hope that this article has provided some useful tips as well as a little inspiration. However, I am also hopeful that this article becomes outdated quickly as teachers continue to develop fresh approaches. Using the media that students are already comfortable with to engage those young minds in the important work of the classroom just makes sense.

Teachers – Building Vocabulary – Reinforce High Frequency Words Using PowerPoint (vs Flash Cards)

Teachers who work with young readers strive to provide multiple opportunities for students to encounter and read the all-important high-frequency words. Many educators (and parents) still purchase flash cards. Using today’s technology, I’d like to suggest an alternative – PowerPoint® shows with the high-frequency words displayed.

Some tips and suggestions for how you can use PowerPoint® slide shows (which show the high-frequency words, one at a time) with your students are listed and explained below:

  1. Choose a plain template since you want minimum distraction.
  2. Input the words that you want your students to practice (or access one of the ones that I have already created that you can receive for free).
  3. Be sure to use a large enough font that it will be easy for students to read when the slides are projected for the whole class. By using a large font, you can also have small groups of students gathered around a laptop or desktop that is displaying the PowerPoint® rather than having to use an LCD-type projector.
  4. Although you can include clipart, generally, I recommend against doing so. Especially for the first 200 or so high-frequency words, there are no visual referents for them (e.g., the, is, all) and you’ll spend an inordinate amount of time hunting for pictures that won’t really help. In addition, keep in mind that you are working on ‘sight’ words that you eventually want students to recognize with or without any additional prompting (other than sometimes, context).
  5. Set up the slide show to advance with a mouse-click rather than automatically, especially when you first begin using PowerPoint® ‘flash cards.’
  6. Tell students that you will be displaying a word on the screen. If they know it, they can say it out loud, can raise their hand and say the word, can tell a neighbor what the word is, etc. Just vary what you want to do depending on your style and the way you like to engage your students.
  7. Because we don’t want students just learning words as separate entities, but rather, recognizing that they function in context, I prefer to display a word, have a student say the word, and then ask students to give phrases or sentences that use the word. For example, if the sight word is “were,” then students could suggest, “We were on our way to the store,” or “They were having fun,” or “All of them were running as fast as they could,” or “were happy,” “were friendly,” etc.
  8. Every so often, change the order of the words by opening your PowerPoint® viewer to ‘Slide Sorter’ view and moving a few of them around. Again, you want students actually learning the words, not just memorizing the order they were in.

Try using these ideas as an alternative to using flashcards. I think you’ll find it fun and the students will enjoy the novelty. If you prefer to access various PowerPoint® slide shows, which I have already created with the 220 Dolch words and the 1000 high-frequency words, you are welcome to do so by going to my website (and it’s a free download).

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