Dolch Sight Word Bingo

The Dolch Sight Word List is a list of 220 common English words that was originally prepared by Edward William Dolch, PhD for his in 1948 book, “Problems in Reading”. In order to achieve fluency in English reading, it is necessary for a child to be able to recognize each of these words, especially since none of these words can be sounded out phonetically.

The Dolch Sight Word List is divided into five levels:

– Pre-Primer: a, and, away, big, blue, can, come, down, find, for, funny, go, help, here, I, in, is, it, jump, little, look, make, me, my, not, one, play, red, run, said, see, the, three, to, two, up, we, where, yellow, you

– Primer: all, am, are, at, ate, be, black, brown, but, came, did, do, eat, four, get, good, have, he, into, like, must, new, no, now, on, our, out, please, pretty, ran, ride, saw, say, she, so, soon, that, there, they, this, too, under, want, was, well, went, what, white, who, will, with, yes

– First Grade: after, again, an, any, as, ask, by, could, every, fly, from, give, giving, had, has, her, him, his, how, just, know, let, live, may, of, old, once, open, over, put, round, some, stop, take, thank, them, then, think, walk, were, when

– Second Grade: always, around, because, been, before, best, both, buy, call, cold, does, don’t, fast, first, five, found, gave, goes, green, its, made, many, off, or, pull, read, right, sing, sit, sleep, tell, their, these, those, upon, us, use, very, wash, which, why, wish, work, would, write, your

– Third Grade: about, better, bring, carry, clean, cut, done, draw, drink, eight, fall, far, full, got, grow, hold, hot, hurt, if, keep, kind, laugh, light, long, much, myself, never, only, own, pick, seven, shall, show, six, small, start, ten, today, together, try, warm

Whether in K-12 education, home-schooling or ESL (English as a Second Language), it is essential that students become not only familiar with all these words, but are able to immediately recognize them. Teachers and educators therefore should try to devise activities around these words, and encouraging their learning and recognition.

One common activity is to make use of flash cards in class. Another one, which is great fun for students, but also very helpful in encouraging learning of these words, is to play Dolch Sight Word Bingo. You can use preprinted bingo cards (although these can be expensive), or create bingo cards by hand (which is cheap but time consuming), or use a special computer program such as Bingo Card Printer to produce the cards.

5 Tips for Using Social Media in Your K12 Classes

More and more teachers are using social media to connect, interact, and engage with the students in real-time. Social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, and such similar ones provide an engaging way to learning.

In this post, we will take a look at using social media networks and micro-blogging platforms to enhance and encourage learning at the highest level.

Frontloading

Frontloading is a popular medium of imparting education in K12 classes. You can use frontloading to discuss with the students about a lesson beforehand to facilitate understanding of the same. Hence, when students come for the class next day, they are well prepared to answer your questions.

Social media works great for frontloading. For example, you can use the social media network to upload your English class lesson video on YouTube. After viewing the recording, students can easily engage in real-time discussion with you to get familiar with the subject matter.

Micro-blogging

Twitter, the premier micro-blogging site can be used to communicate significant class-related information in 140 characters or less. Micro-blogging acts as an excellent learning platform to encourage valuable inputs and thoughts regarding a particular subject or class. Educational organizations can also introduce TodaysMeet, a free and easy-to-use micro-blogging website in classrooms to start interacting with the learners.

Back-channeling

Many teachers are incorporating back-channeling in their classroom. This allows students to discuss or share learning information on Facebook or Twitter while the K12 class is running. In other words, students can write about the lessons on Twitter and Facebook that will gradually be shown on a big screen for the entire class to view the same. The instructor then takes his/her own turn to respond to the questions raised in the backchannel every now and then. Back-channeling, therefore, creates an excitement among students to reply to questions and find out other students’ comments.

Role Playing

Role playing combined with social media can be an extremely fun-filled and wonderful experience for students. Role playing creates brilliant learning opportunities and is super simple to manage. Teachers assign a role to each learner from suppose a novel or a short story and they are said to enact the respective roles to make the learning experience great fun.

Facebook Fan Pages

Educational organizations can tell their teachers to introduce Facebook in classrooms. It will help students to easily create Facebook fan pages on any topic of their choice and interest. For example, a history teacher can create a “Declaration of US Independence in 1776” fan page. Students can post their notes and share the results of their work with the entire class.

Is the Carrot and Stick Method Useful in Higher Education?

Consider how the process of learning begins for students. As a general perceptual rule, when students begin their degree programs they hope to obtain good grades, useful skills, and relevant knowledge. The tuition paid assures placement in a class and there are implied results that students expect as a product of their involvement in that class. In contrast, instructors expect that students will obey the academic rules, perform to the best of their abilities, and comply with specific class requirements that include deadlines for completion of learning activities.

For students, grades serve as an indicator of their progress in class, a symbol of their accomplishments and failures, and a record of their standing in a degree program. I have heard many students state that their primary goal for the class was to earn what they refer to as “good grades” – even though they may not be fully aware of what constitutes a good grade for them. When students aren’t achieving good grades, or the minimum expected by instructors and/or the school, instructors may try to nudge them on – either through positive motivational methods such as coaching and mentoring, or negative motivational methods that include threats and a demeaning disposition.

I found that many educators dangle a carrot in front of their students through indirect methods, such as the potential to earn a better grade, as an “A” in an indicator of the ultimate achievement in school. There may be incentives given to prompt better performance, including additional time or a resubmission allowance for a written assignment, as a means of encouraging students to perform better.

My question is whether the focus of teaching in higher education should be on the carrot we dangle in front of students to perform better or should there be more of a focus on what motivates each individual student to perform to the best of their abilities? In other words, do we need to be dangling something in front of students to serve as a source of motivation?

What is the Carrot and Stick Method?

I believe that most people understand the meaning of dangling a carrot in front of students to motivate them. The phrase is actually based upon a tale about a method of motivating a donkey and while the carrot is dangling in front of it, the stick is used to prod the animal along. The carrot serves as a reward and the stick is used as a form of reinforcement and punishment for non-compliance.

This approach is still used in the workplace, even subconsciously by managers, as a method of motivating employees. The carrot or incentives may include a promotion, pay increase, different assignments, and the list continues. The stick that is used, or the punishment for not reaching specific goals or performance levels, may include demotion or a job loss. A threat of that nature can serve as a powerful motivator, even if the essence of this approach is negative and stressful.

The Carrot and Stick Approach in Higher Education

If you are uncertain about the use of this approach in higher education, consider the following example. You are providing feedback for a written assignment and it is now the halfway point in the class. For one particular student, you believe they have not met the criteria for the assignment and more importantly, they have either not put in enough effort, they did not perform to your expectations, or they did not live up to their full potential.

It is worth mentioning that your beliefs about students are shaped by how you view them and their potential. In other words, I try to see my students as individuals who have varying levels of performance and that means some will be further along than others. In contrast, instructors who believe they do not have enough time to get to know their students as individuals may view the class as a whole and set an expectation regarding the overall performance level that all students should be at for this particular point in the class.

Returning to the example provided, my question to you is this: Do you reward the attempt made by the student or do you penalize that student for what you perceive to be a lack of effort? As a faculty trainer, I have interacted with many faculty who believe that all students should be high performers and earning top grades, regardless of their background and prior classes. When students fail to meet that expectation, there is a perception that students either do not care, they are not trying, or they are not reading and applying the feedback provided. The instructor’s response then is to dangle a carrot (incentive) and use the stick to try to change the necessary student behaviors.

Relevance for Adult Learning

There is a perception held by many educators, especially those who teach in traditional college classes, that the instructors are in control and students must comply. This reinforces a belief within students that they do not have control over their outcomes and that is why many believe grades are beyond their control. I have seen many students stop trying by the time they were enrolled in a class I was teaching simply because they could not make a connection between the effort they have made to the outcomes or grades received. In other words, while they believed they were doing everything “right” – they were still getting poor grades.

At the heart of the adult learning process is motivation. There are as many degrees of motivation as there are types of students and it is not realistic to expect that all students will be performing at the same level. I’ve learned through time and practice that adult student behaviors do not or will not permanently change as a result of forced compliance. However, behaviors will change in time when an instructor has built a connection with their students and established a sense of rapport with them. I encourage instructors to think beyond dangling a carrot and try to influence behavior, and not always through the use of rewards.

From a Carrot to a Connection

It is important for instructors to create a climate and classroom conditions that are conducive to engaging students, while becoming aware of (and recognizing) that all students have a capacity to learn and some gradually reach their potential while others develop much more quickly. My instructional approach has shifted early on from a rewards or carrot focus to a student focus. I want to build connections with students and nurture productive relationships with them, even when I am teaching an online class and have the distance factor to consider. I encourage students to make an effort and I welcome creative risks. I teach students to embrace what they call their failures as valuable learning lessons. I encourage their involvement in the learning process, prompt their original thinking during class discussions, and I teach them that their efforts do influence the outcomes received.

I recognize that this type of approach is not always easy to implement when classroom management is time consuming, and this is especially true for adjunct instructors. However, at a very minimum it can become an attitude and part of an engaging instructional practice. I encourage instructors to include it as part of their underlying teaching philosophy so they recognize and work to implement it. Every educator should have a well-thought out teaching philosophy as it guides how they act and react to students and classroom conditions. A student focus, rather than a carrot and stick focus, creates a shift in perspective from looking first at the deficits of students and seeing their strengths – along with their potential. It is an attitude of looking away from lack and looking towards meaning in the learning process, and a shift from seeing an entire class to viewing students individually. My hope is that this inspires you to re-evaluate and re-examine how teach your students and consider new methods of prompting their best performance.

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