Is the Carrot and Stick Method Useful in Higher Education?

Consider how the process of learning begins for students. As a general perceptual rule, when students begin their degree programs they hope to obtain good grades, useful skills, and relevant knowledge. The tuition paid assures placement in a class and there are implied results that students expect as a product of their involvement in that class. In contrast, instructors expect that students will obey the academic rules, perform to the best of their abilities, and comply with specific class requirements that include deadlines for completion of learning activities.

For students, grades serve as an indicator of their progress in class, a symbol of their accomplishments and failures, and a record of their standing in a degree program. I have heard many students state that their primary goal for the class was to earn what they refer to as “good grades” – even though they may not be fully aware of what constitutes a good grade for them. When students aren’t achieving good grades, or the minimum expected by instructors and/or the school, instructors may try to nudge them on – either through positive motivational methods such as coaching and mentoring, or negative motivational methods that include threats and a demeaning disposition.

I found that many educators dangle a carrot in front of their students through indirect methods, such as the potential to earn a better grade, as an “A” in an indicator of the ultimate achievement in school. There may be incentives given to prompt better performance, including additional time or a resubmission allowance for a written assignment, as a means of encouraging students to perform better.

My question is whether the focus of teaching in higher education should be on the carrot we dangle in front of students to perform better or should there be more of a focus on what motivates each individual student to perform to the best of their abilities? In other words, do we need to be dangling something in front of students to serve as a source of motivation?

What is the Carrot and Stick Method?

I believe that most people understand the meaning of dangling a carrot in front of students to motivate them. The phrase is actually based upon a tale about a method of motivating a donkey and while the carrot is dangling in front of it, the stick is used to prod the animal along. The carrot serves as a reward and the stick is used as a form of reinforcement and punishment for non-compliance.

This approach is still used in the workplace, even subconsciously by managers, as a method of motivating employees. The carrot or incentives may include a promotion, pay increase, different assignments, and the list continues. The stick that is used, or the punishment for not reaching specific goals or performance levels, may include demotion or a job loss. A threat of that nature can serve as a powerful motivator, even if the essence of this approach is negative and stressful.

The Carrot and Stick Approach in Higher Education

If you are uncertain about the use of this approach in higher education, consider the following example. You are providing feedback for a written assignment and it is now the halfway point in the class. For one particular student, you believe they have not met the criteria for the assignment and more importantly, they have either not put in enough effort, they did not perform to your expectations, or they did not live up to their full potential.

It is worth mentioning that your beliefs about students are shaped by how you view them and their potential. In other words, I try to see my students as individuals who have varying levels of performance and that means some will be further along than others. In contrast, instructors who believe they do not have enough time to get to know their students as individuals may view the class as a whole and set an expectation regarding the overall performance level that all students should be at for this particular point in the class.

Returning to the example provided, my question to you is this: Do you reward the attempt made by the student or do you penalize that student for what you perceive to be a lack of effort? As a faculty trainer, I have interacted with many faculty who believe that all students should be high performers and earning top grades, regardless of their background and prior classes. When students fail to meet that expectation, there is a perception that students either do not care, they are not trying, or they are not reading and applying the feedback provided. The instructor’s response then is to dangle a carrot (incentive) and use the stick to try to change the necessary student behaviors.

Relevance for Adult Learning

There is a perception held by many educators, especially those who teach in traditional college classes, that the instructors are in control and students must comply. This reinforces a belief within students that they do not have control over their outcomes and that is why many believe grades are beyond their control. I have seen many students stop trying by the time they were enrolled in a class I was teaching simply because they could not make a connection between the effort they have made to the outcomes or grades received. In other words, while they believed they were doing everything “right” – they were still getting poor grades.

At the heart of the adult learning process is motivation. There are as many degrees of motivation as there are types of students and it is not realistic to expect that all students will be performing at the same level. I’ve learned through time and practice that adult student behaviors do not or will not permanently change as a result of forced compliance. However, behaviors will change in time when an instructor has built a connection with their students and established a sense of rapport with them. I encourage instructors to think beyond dangling a carrot and try to influence behavior, and not always through the use of rewards.

From a Carrot to a Connection

It is important for instructors to create a climate and classroom conditions that are conducive to engaging students, while becoming aware of (and recognizing) that all students have a capacity to learn and some gradually reach their potential while others develop much more quickly. My instructional approach has shifted early on from a rewards or carrot focus to a student focus. I want to build connections with students and nurture productive relationships with them, even when I am teaching an online class and have the distance factor to consider. I encourage students to make an effort and I welcome creative risks. I teach students to embrace what they call their failures as valuable learning lessons. I encourage their involvement in the learning process, prompt their original thinking during class discussions, and I teach them that their efforts do influence the outcomes received.

I recognize that this type of approach is not always easy to implement when classroom management is time consuming, and this is especially true for adjunct instructors. However, at a very minimum it can become an attitude and part of an engaging instructional practice. I encourage instructors to include it as part of their underlying teaching philosophy so they recognize and work to implement it. Every educator should have a well-thought out teaching philosophy as it guides how they act and react to students and classroom conditions. A student focus, rather than a carrot and stick focus, creates a shift in perspective from looking first at the deficits of students and seeing their strengths – along with their potential. It is an attitude of looking away from lack and looking towards meaning in the learning process, and a shift from seeing an entire class to viewing students individually. My hope is that this inspires you to re-evaluate and re-examine how teach your students and consider new methods of prompting their best performance.

Make Classes Educational, Not Recreational

Your lessons should be the most expensive in town. If they aren’t, you’re short changing yourself and your staff. If you don’t have the money to pay your staff the best wages in your area and buy the latest equipment and products to improve your curriculum, your program will go stagnant. But to be the most expensive and stay in business, you have to deliver the goods. Parents write their checks for their children’s lessons thinking, “Is this worth it?” Every lesson you must make those parents say, “Wow!” With your exceptional staff, facility, and curriculum, you can do that. The easiest way to make parents appreciate your program and realize its value is to show them you are more educational than recreational.

Parents will pay more for education than recreation. Even in difficult times they’ll pay more for a child to learn than to play. How do we show them that our preschool dance and gymnastics classes are educational?

First, you must educate parents on the benefits of the program. That should start with their first contact with you-usually a telephone call asking about enrollment and instructional information. Make sure you and your office staff know exactly what to say; avoid assigning your newest or least-experienced employee to answer the phones. (Parents, after all, think they are talking to you-the boss or head teacher-regardless of who attempts to answer their queries.) Type out a script or “cheat sheet” with all the current and vital information on it. Tape it near the telephone so whoever answers the call can give an intelligent, informative answer. At my gym, I have sales scripts for each of the types of programs and classes we offer and also a “new student checklist.” It’s a form so the office staff can be sure they relay the necessary information and that we get the necessary information. At every telephone, we have an “Info Book” which is a 5×7 3-ring binder with a card of every class we offer and the requirements to get into that class, the apparel and its cost, the teachers and their qualifications, and what they need to know to register for that class.

When the customer first brings their children into your gym, take time to give them a tour of the facility (set appointment times if necessary). During the tour explain your mission statement, dress code and viewing policies, and what the classes will be like. Have an exact tour script that every staff member has memorized.

From the first contact with your school, use a vocabulary that makes parents think of schools and education: tuition, not class fees, institute, academy, or school instead of club or studio, teacher or instructor instead of coach, trainer or demonstrator, semester or quarter instead of sessions, student, not child, and administrator or director instead of owner. Use words such as school secretary or registrar, curriculum and syllabus or lesson plans, school policies, teacher’s open house (not open gym or studio).

Position your advertising and marketing to suggest that you run a school, not a studio or workout space. At the bottom of my print advertisements, I say “your educational gymnastic and dance experts since 1969.”

I recommend your preschool program have its own name and identity, such as my “Tumblebear Gym Program.” It describes what we do in class and separates our preschool program from my facility name, “Patti’s All-American, the Leader in Gymnastics, Dance, and Swim.” Our mascots are Tina and Teddy Tumblebear; the word tumblebear suggests that tumbling will be involved and with the bears, it probably means little kids. I didn’t name it tumblbear gymnastics program because I knew during the gymnastic section of the classes, we would be doing other things than just gymnastics. For instance, we use a parachute occasionally for the preschoolers, we do hand/eye coordination drills, and use props such as ropes, hoops, sticks, scarves, and balls. If you’re going to do creative movement, then call your program something like American Academy’s Creative Movement program. But if your customer comes in expecting a split class of ballet and bars, beam, floor, etc., and you have them doing a lummi stick routine and throw bean bags into laundry baskets, you will disappointed them. If your office staff educates the caller about what to expect in class, they will be supportive and enthusiastic about the process.

Frame a mission statement and/or philosophy and display it in your lobby or waiting area. Then live by it. Include it in your employee application and orientation packets, and ask that your staff members agree to it. Inspect and evaluate your teaching and clerical staff periodically (it’s called responsible supervision). You must inspect what you expect. And, always do it many times when you first get a new teacher.

If your school allows parents and other caregivers to watch classes, talk to the observers during or after class about what you’re doing and why you’re doing it. If you’re teaching a parent/tot class, you have a prime opportunity to explain the program while they’re in class. Using phrases like “child directed,” “teachable moment,” and “success oriented” will enhance your credibility. Explain, for example, that learning animal walks will help the children learn a cartwheel later on. That they child must understand the difference between a bent knee and a straight leg in a “bear walk” and a “camel walk.” Point out that by going sideways down a balance beam, a child improves their laterality, a skill needed for reading readiness.

Getting into kindergarten and passing the pre-kindergarten testing is a big deal to parents of preschoolers. Get a copy of the tests for kindergarten from your area school district. On the test my school system uses (which is standard for the State of Indiana), there are twelve skill areas. We work on four of them in our program: gross motor skills, rote counting, identification of body parts, and ability to follow verbal directions. If parents understand that your classes better prepare the preschool child for school, they will stick with your program. And if they really believe in your program, they will enroll younger siblings and spread the word to their friends.

In your lesson plans you can introduce a word of the week, color of the week, or letter or number of the week to “increase vocabulary” or “color awareness.” Incorporate items like this in your daily teaching even when it isn’t structured on your lesson plan. Perhaps you should add a category called “convey educational aspects.” Take a few moments to jot down those important reasons and relay them to the parents.

Understand and use buzz phrases such as “developmentally appropriate skills” and “age appropriate activities.” Developmentally appropriate skills are those that a child may be ready for according to their physical or mental capacity instead of what age they are. For example, a hotshot six-year-old could be ready for a back handspring because she has been in the program for three years and has sufficient shoulder flexibility and arm strength. Most gymnastic skills, though, are somewhat age-related, not age determined. Age appropriate means just that-activities that are appropriate for a particular age. For example, a Barney song for warm-up could be appropriate for a parent and tot class for two- and three-year-olds, but it would probably die in a more worldly class of five-year-olds.

Involve your preschool staff in preparing the lesson plans. This brainstorming approach keeps a high level of creative ideas flowing, which is such an important (and often draining) part of preschool education. It also reinforces the use of educationally oriented vocabulary among teachers. Being part of the preparation creates a feeling of ownership and can help teachers “sell” the educational approach.

Your focus is to provide as much education as you can in your classes and to relay that to your parents. This will make a difference in your classes, what customers think of your business, AND your bottom line.

Special Education Reform?

I remember 20 plus years ago when I was getting my graduate degree in Special Education and a buddy of mine getting his degree in elementary education told me that his father, a school principal, said that I probably shouldn’t waste my time getting a masters in Special Education. He said that Special Education would be eventually fading out of public education. I was almost done with my masters at this point so I figured I would have to take my chances with it, besides what other choice did I have anyways at that point?

I got a Special Education job and taught for about 10 year. There were a lot of ups and downs over those 10 years, and eventually I decided that I wanted a change so I got certified and switched over to high school history. At this point in my career I remembered what my friend had said a decade ago and wondered if I was ahead of the curve on schools no longer needing special education teachers, even though it was 10 years later. I wondered if my job was now safe in my new-found home in the history department.

Well, I loved teaching history, but life has its own funny ways that aren’t aligned to us and what we want, so after a decade of teaching history I personally got a first class education on budget cuts and my job was eliminated. Thankfully, I landed on my feet back in Special Education, believe it or not.

It had been more than two decades since my old graduate school buddy told me that the need for special education teachers was disappearing. During the previous two decades my friend had gone from graduate school to elementary school teacher to assistant principal to principal, just like his father had done. I had gone from graduate school to special education teacher to history teacher to back to special education teacher, like nobody else that I know had done. And believe it or not there was still a bunch of special education jobs available when I landed there for a second time. As a matter of fact, there was actually plenty of jobs there because there is a shortage of special education teachers in 49 out of our 50 states. Imagine that… Two decades after I was told that Special Education was going away, and I find that they still can’t seem to get enough special education teachers.

Fast-forward a few more years to today and there is a new and interesting twist affecting Special Education called full inclusion. Now inclusion isn’t a new thing to our schools. As a matter of fact inclusion has a long interesting history in our schools.

Six decades ago there was the Supreme Court Case of Brown v. Board of Education. In 1954 the new law of the land became integrated schools for all races. Four decades ago the ground-breaking law of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) began to take effect and help ensure that more than six million students with disabilities have the right to a free and appropriate education, which means they too get to be included in with the general education population.

To help this happen schools create a Planning and Placement Team (PPT) that meet and discuss a student’s Individual Education Program (IEP) and then place the student in the appropriate educational setting based on the student’s needs and the law. The placement also needs to be the least restrictive environment (LRE). I can still remember my college professor describing the least restrictive environment in a short story that one would not bring a machine gun to take care of a fly. Rather, one would just bring a fly-swatter to take care of a fly. In other words, if a kid’s disability can be dealt with in the neighborhood school, then the kid doesn’t have to be sent across town or even to another town’s special school.

Today, many schools are trying to improve on this inclusion model and least restrictive environment by going from a partial to a full-inclusion model. Schools in the Los Angeles School District have moved a vast majority of their students out of their special education centers within the last three years and into neighborhood schools where they are fully integrated into elective classes like physical education, gardening and cooking. They are also integrated into regular main stream academic classes as well, but it’s usually not to the same degree as electives.

Michigan schools say that want to break down the walls between general education and Special Education creating a system in which students will get more help when they need it, and that support doesn’t need to be in a separate special education classroom.

Some school districts in Portland, Oregon are a little further along than the Los Angeles schools that are just bringing special education students back from special schools and Michigan schools that are just beginning to try full integration of its students and eliminating most of the special education classrooms.

Being a little further along in the process Portland makes an interesting case study. Many of the parents who initially supported the idea of integrating special education students into regular education classrooms in Portland are now worried about how the Portland Public School System is doing it. Portland is aiming for full-inclusion by the year 2020. However, some of the teachers in Portland are saying, “Obviously the special education students are going to fail and they are going to act out because we are not meeting their needs… If there’s not the right support there, that’s not acceptable, not only for the child, but for the general education teacher as well.”

A Portland parent said, “I would rather have my child feel successful than for them to be ‘college-ready’.” She further states, “I want my children to be good, well-rounded human beings that make the world a better place. I don’t think they necessarily need to go to college to do that. I think that children are individuals, and when we stop treating them as individuals, there’s a problem.” Sadly, many parents and teachers have left the Portland School District, and many more are fantasizing about it because they feel the full-inclusion model isn’t working there how they pictured it would.

How much should schools integrate the special education students is the burning question of the hour. In my personal experience some integration is not only possible, but it’s a must. With some support many of the special education students can be in the regular education classrooms.

A few years ago I even had a non-speaking paraplegic boy in a wheel chair who was on a breathing respirator sitting in my regular education social studies class. Every day his para professional and his nurse rolled him into and sat with him. He always smiled at the tales I told of Alexander the Great marching across 11,000 miles of territory and conquering much of the known world at that time. By the way, Alexander the Great also practiced his own model of inclusion by encouraging kindness to the conquered and encouraging his soldiers to marry the captured territory’s women in order to create a lasting peace.

Other important factors to consider in special education inclusion is the much needed socialization and the saving of money integration offers. Kids learn from other kids and money not spent on Special Education could be spent on general education, right? Hmm…

If you noticed, I said a little bit earlier that many special education students could be integrated, but I did not say all or even most should be integrated. There are just some students that are going to take away too much of the teacher’s time and attention from other students, such as, in the case of students with severe behavior problems. When we put severe behavior problems in regular education classes it’s just outright unfair to all of the other children in there. Similar cases could be made for other severe disabilities too that demand too much of the main stream teacher’s individual time and attention.

Hey, I’m not saying to never try out a kid with a severe disability in a general education setting. But what I am saying is that schools need to have a better system of monitoring these placements and be able to quickly remove students that aren’t working out, and are taking precious learning time away from other students. Furthermore, schools need to do this without shaming the teacher because the teacher complained that the student wasn’t a good fit and was disrupting the educational learning process of the other students. Leaving a kid in an inappropriate placement isn’t good for any of the parties involved. Period.

Over the last two decades I have worked with more special education students than I can remember as a special education teacher and a regular education teacher teaching inclusion classes. I have learned to become extremely flexible and patient and thus have had some of the toughest and most needy kids placed in my classes. I have worked miracles with these kids over the years and I know that I am not the only teacher out there doing this. There are many more out there just like me. But, what I worry about is that because teachers are so dedicated and pulling off daily miracles in the classroom, districts, community leaders, and politician may be pushing too hard for the full-inclusion model thinking that the teachers will just have to figure it out. Setting up teachers and students for failure is never a good idea.

Furthermore, I hope it’s just not the money that they are trying to save while pushing this full-inclusion model forward because what we should really be trying to save is our children. As Fredrick Douglas said, “It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men.” Regardless of how the financial educational pie is sliced, the bottom line is that the pie is just too small and our special education teachers and our special education students shouldn’t be made to pay for this.

In addition, I have been a teacher for too long to not be at least a little skeptical when I hear the bosses say that the reason they are pushing for the full-inclusion model is because socialization is so important. I know it’s important. But, I also know that too many people are hanging their hats on that socialization excuse rather than education our special needs students and providing them what they really need. I have seen special education students whose abilities only let them draw pictures sitting in honors classes. There is no real socialization taking place here. It just doesn’t make sense.

Well, finally coming full circle. It will be interesting to see where this full inclusion thing goes. The wise ones won’t let their special education teachers go, or get rid of their classrooms. And for the school districts that do, I imagine that it won’t take long before they realize the mistake they made and start hiring special education teachers back. To my friend and his now ex-principal father from all those years ago who thought special education was going away, well, we’re not there yet, and to tell you the truth, I don’t think we ever will be.

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